Those who are preparing for assignments and school going kids can directly read this essay on pollution in 150 words. Students in class 7,8,9,10 can refer to this pollution essay in english. So start with what is pollution.
Introduction of Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants which causes changes in the natural environment. Pollution may be in the form of chemical substances or noise, heat, and light. Pollutants can be either foreign substances or naturally occurring contaminants. Major forms of pollution include air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, etc. Pollution has always accompanied civilisations right from old age.
Types of Pollution
The major types of pollution are discussed below:
- Air Pollution: the major reason of air pollution is the presence of contaminants in the atmosphere in the form of harmful gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, CFCs, etc. which are released by vehicles as well as industries. Particulate matter or fine dust is measured in micrometers which is an indication level of air pollution.
- Water pollution: this is caused by the release of untreated sewage and wastewater into the water bodies which are mostly released by the industries. They mostly contain chlorine as well as other harmful chemicals which cause pollution.
- Soil Pollution: contamination of the soil is caused by the presence of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, insecticides, pesticides, etc. which pollute the soil. In this type of soil, crops fail to grow healthy and may cause the death of people and animals when consumed.
- Noise Pollution: it is caused by the presence of high noises in our environment. May be caused by the sound of loudspeakers, aircraft, industries, etc.
- Plastic Pollution: it occurs due to the accumulation of a large number of plastics and polyethene bags in the environment.
- Light Pollution: this is a new term being used now. This is caused by the presence of lights in excess amounts; i.e. over-illumination as well as light trespass and excessive glow. This pollution can be reduced by the use of LED lights.
- Thermal Pollution: caused by a change in natural water body when the temperature sees a drastic change.
Effects of Pollution
Pollution has a serious effect on all the living beings present in the ecosystem. This includes both the humans as well as the animals. Air Pollution is averse to humans as it is known to cause respiratory problems like asthma, shortness of breath, chest pain, etc. amongst others. Water Pollution is known to be the cause of many deaths.
It is mostly caused due to the drinking of poor contaminated water from dirty water sources which is a trend in developing countries.
In our country, unsafe tube wells are to be marked by the red sign so that people don’t drink water from them. However, many people ignore that warning which leads to the death of the people. Noise Pollution causes hearing loss, fault in the eardrums, deafness, etc. it can permanently make the person unable to hear. When the animals present in our environment to eat food from the polythene which is a cause of soil pollution; it causes the choking of the windpipe of the animals which leads to their death. Also, they produce offspring which are not fully healthy.
Pollution has a very bad effect on the environment. The ecosystem may cease to exist if the pollution level exceeds day by day. In many places, trees and plants stop growing which leads to a shortage of food for the people to eat thereby causing malnutrition in the people living there which ultimately leads to the death of the people. When toxic substances begin to accumulate in the soil, the soil is deemed to be unfit for any further cultivation.That soil thus becomes useless. This is a loss to the economy of any area.
Smog which is formed due to the presence of smoke and fog in the air reduces the amount of sunlight coming to the plants for photosynthesis. This leads to less release of oxygen in the atmosphere which decreases the air quality. The emission of harmful greenhouse gases causes global warming which is at present one of the most dangerous evils. It leads to numerous effects like rise in global temperatures, abnormal rise in water level in the sea, loss of habitat along the coastal plane, etc.
Regulation and monitoring
Pollution Control is a term used in environmental management. It means regulating the flow of effluents into the soil and water bodies as well as reducing the flow of pollutants into the air. Some of the techniques which can be used to reduce pollution are as follows – – –
- Recycling: to recycle bottles, bags, cloths which can be used again and again
- Reusing: includes reuse of old and torn items like shoes, bags, belts
- Prevention: stop burning of trees, wood, use of polythene
- Waste management: effectively discharge the waste generated by the industries
Some common pollution control devices include – – –
- Biofilter: is used to improve the quality of air by removing the pollutants
- Sedimentation: is used to separate the solid and liquid wastes for effective discharge
- Wastelands: can be made to filter out the harmful particles of waste before discharge into the water bodies
- Electrostatic precipitators: these are used to reduce the number of pollutants found in the air by applying proper techniques.
Most Polluting Industries
- Chemical: they release harmful chemicals into the water bodies
- Lead Acid Battery: release of lead which is the cause of spread of arsenic disease
- Leather: release chemicals that destroy crops and soil of an area.